Physical and chemical properties of soil

Carbon (C), oxygen (O) and hydrogen (H).
All three are the raw material in the formation of plant tissues, is in the form of H2O, H2CO3, and CO2 in the air. Processes or reactions that take place are:
6CO2 + 6H2O → C6H12O6 + 674 cal + 6CO2 (asimilsai CO2 in photosynthesis)
C6H12O6 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + 6CO2 + 674 cal (dissimilasi or respiratory)
H is needed in the process of formation of organic matter derived from H2O, the availability of the optimum is absolutely necessary for biological production processes are fair. H2O also serves also as a solvent of all chemical processes, as the transport medium and as penghidratasi various colloidal systems.

Nitrogen (N)
This substance serves limp untuuk:
a. Improve plant growth
b. Healthy green leaves (chlorophyll)
c. Increase levels of protein in the body of plants
d. Improve the quality of plants that produce leaves
e. Berkembangbiakan increase in soil micro-organisms that are important for the continuation of the weathering of organic material

Phosphorus (P)
This plant serves to:
a. Accelerate the growth of seedling roots
b. Stimulate and strengthen the growth of mature plants in general
c. Increase grain production
According to Mehlich and Brake (1995), P is the nutrient material forming the cell nucleus, but it has an important role for cell division and for the development of meristematic tissue. Can form a high-power phosphate bonds are used to accelerate the processes of physiology. Substance P is a phosphate mineral in the soil, mostly in the form of phosphate and limestone in the form of plant debris and other material organ. Muria, Cirebon Phosphate, Algeria phosphate are forms of phosphate of lime.

Potassium (K)
Potassium is a nutrient element that is easy to make compounds with other elements or substances such as chlorine, magnesium. Elements (K) function for the plant to:
a. Accelerate the formation of carbohydrates in plant
b. Strengthening the plant body
c. Enhance resistance to pests / cautions and drought
d. Improve the quality of seeds
Properties of K that is readily soluble and easily washed away and also modifications in the soil. K is the source of some kind of mineral, plant debris and micro-organisms, water irrigation, the soil solution, plant ash and inorganic fertilizers.

Calcium (Ca)
Ca serves to:
a. Soil acidity regulator of plant body
b. It is important for the growth of plant roots
c. It is important for leaf growth
d. Can neutralize the accumulation of toxins in the body of plants
Ca ions cause dehidratasi, affecting the water household plants that are antagonik with ion K. Ca ions also play an important role for plant growth upward and bud formation

Magnesium (Mg)
Mg for plants that serve to:
a. Healthy chlorophyll
b. Regulate the body’s circulation substance P in the plant
c. Regulate the circulation of the carbohydrates in the body of plants

Sulphurus (S)
Function of the sulfur is
a. Is an important component in the formation of protein
b. Effect on the formation of chlorophyll
c. Accelerate the development of roots
Element is an element of the macro above. This time will be discussed on the micro elements that are generally micro-nutrients catalyst is a substance or substances that can accelerate the chemical compounds in the plant body.

Manganium (Mn)
Mn elements required for the formation of substances of plant protein, vitamins (especially vitamin C) and to maintain a state of chlorophyll in the leaves (especially the older leaves). Mn terekstrasikan if the level is 1000 ppm in dry matter would be bad that it can be toxic to plants, commonly occurs in soils are very acidic calcification needs to be done to overcome them.

Ferrum (Fe)
Fe absorbed by plants in the form of Fe + +, Fe + + + is important for the formation of chlorophyll, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and enzymes. If the elements Fe, there will be no hoarding / pelonggokan NO3 and SO4.

Cuprum (Cu)
Cu absorbed by plant roots in the form of Cu + or Cu + +, its role in plant physiology is not known, but something that acts as an enzyme substrate oxidation as Cuporphinproteid. For Cerealia plants growing on soils of high organic matter berkandungan, Cu deficiency can lead to bottlenecks, as well as fruit trees growing on sandy gravel soil.

Zincum (Zn)
Zn absorbed by plant roots elements in the form of Zn + +, plants growing in areas daerahh bright sun shining in great need of this element. Inhibition of growth due to Zn elements in acid soils can be overcome with the implementation of pengkapuran. Based on neutral ground fresh organic healthy plant will grow with the availability of adequate Zn elements it requires.

Molybdenium (Mo)
Mo element is absorbed in the form of MoO4 plant roots, an element that is also needed by plants, plants that live without Mo will heap / stack NO3. Mo deficiency is generally found on sandy soils and ground mild acid in terms of reduction in acid soil acidity of pH 5-7 by calcification may increase the absorption of Mo up to 10 times. Little excess of these elements can be toxic to plants.

Boron (Bo)
Bo elements required for culturing the cells of plants, especially in the growing point of shoots, the growth of pollen, flower and plant roots. Bo absorbed by plants in the form of BoO3. Bo deficiency affects the meristem or splitting the network itself, appears to be the death of growing point of the disintegration of the vascular network (transport network), black and soft, in crops rotting bits of pith, on the plant stem selderi cracks / breaks.
Each species has specific requirements for mo growth and if the environment is not appropriate, the growth or activity will decline thus affecting the total population. Temperature, affect the speed of all processes that occur in the mo Denaturation of the enzyme is limiting the maximum temperature, is very bevariasi between mo mo so will their needs vary with temperature (maximum, minimum and optimum) for prtumbuhannya. Based on the temperature mo psikrofil divided into groups (<50C similar optimum mesophyll), mesophyll (between 250C and 370C optimum) and termofil (between 550C and 650C optimum). Osmotic pressure, in general mo enough to have their adaptability to the osmotic pressure of the environment. Mo protoplasm which normally has a higher solute content than the osmotic pressure of the environment. Kedaan This leads to the tendency of water into the cell, so that the cell turgor can be maintained.


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