Basically every tool has a name that suggests the usefulness of tools, working principles or processes that take place when the appliance is used. Some of the usability of tools can be identified by its name. Naming tools that measure functioning normally ends with the word meter like thermometer, hygrometer and spectrophotometers, etc.. Measuring tools are accompanied by written information, usually given additional “graph” as Thermograph, barograph (Moningka, 2008).
From the above description, implied that the name on every tool illustrates the usefulness of the tool and or describe the working principle of the instrument in question. In use there are tools that are general and some are special. Common equipment normally used for a repair activity, whereas more specialized equipment is used for a measurement or determination (Moningka, 2008).
Antonie Van Leuwenhook is the person who first saw the bacteria by using an optical instrument consisting of a lens bikonvens. At that time he discovered the bacteria in a variety of liquids, between body fluids, water, pepper extract, and beer. The discovery of the microscope at the time it opened up opportunities to do research on the process of fermentation and the discovery of disease-causing microorganisms (Ferdias, 1992). Microscope is the most typical in microbiology laboratories that provide magnification that allows us to see the structure of microorganisms that can not be seen by the naked eye. Microscopes are available would allow a wide magnification range from a couple of times to thousands of times (Lay, 1994). As for tools used in microbiology laboratories, among others (Blacksweetranger, 2008):
• The light microscope (brightfield Microscope)
One of the tools to see the cells of microorganisms is a light microscope. With the microscope we can observe bacterial cells that can not be seen with the naked eye. In general, the eye is not able to distinguish objects with diameters smaller than 0.1 mm. The following is a description of how to use the parts and specification of Olympus CH20 light microscope brands owned Microbiology Laboratory.
Autoclave is a device to sterilize a wide range of tools and materials used in microbiology using pressurized hot water vapor. Pressure used is generally 15 Psi or about 2 atm and a temperature of 121oC (250oF). So the pressure that works to the entire surface of the object is 15 pounds per inchi2 (15 Psi = 15 pounds per square inch). Old sterilization performed usually 15 minutes to 121oC.
• Incubator (Incubator)
Incubator is a tool to incubate or brood of microbes at a controlled temperature. This tool is equipped with temperature control and timer. Temperature range for production incubator Heraeus B5042-70 ° C for example is 10.
• Hot plate Stirrer and Stirrer bar
Hot Plate Stirrer and Stirrer bars (Magnetic Stirrer) serves to homogenize the solution with stirring. Plate (plate) contained in this tool can be heated so as to accelerate the process of homogenization. With the aid of magnetic stirring rod Hot Plate Magnetic Stirrer and SBS-100 series from SBS ® for example able to homogenize up to 10 L, with very slow speeds to 1600 rpm and can be heated up to 425oC.
• Colony counter
This tool is useful to simplify the calculation of colonies that grew after cup, because incubated in the presence of a magnifying glass. Additionally the tool is equipped with a scale / quadrant which is very useful for observation of colony growth very much. The number of colonies on Petri dishes can be tagged and can be calculated automatically reset.
• Biological Safety Cabinet
Biological Safety Cabinet (BSC) or can also be called the Laminar Air Flow (LAF) is a useful tool for working in aseptic because the BSC has a pattern of air flow and filter settings so that it becomes sterile and UV light aplication several hours before use.
• Micropipette and Tip
Micropipette is a tool to move the fluid volume is quite small, usually less than 1000 mL. Many options in the micropipette capacity, such as an adjustable volume micropipette pickup (adjustable volume pipette) between 1μl to 20 mL, or a micropipette which is not adjustable volume, only one option available volume (fixed volume pipette) eg 5 mL micropipette. in its use, requiring micropipette tip.
• Petri dishes (Petri Dish)
Petri dish serves to breed (cultivation) of microorganisms. Medium can be poured into the cup bottom and top of the cup as a cover. Petri dishes are available in various sizes, the usual diameter of the cup 15 cm in diameter can accommodate as many as 15-20 ml of media, while the cup of 9 cm diameter is filled with approximately 10 ml of media.
• Tubes reaction (Reaction Tube / Test Tube)
In the microbiology, test tubes used for biochemical tests and grow microbe. Reaction tube can be filled solid or liquid media. Close the test tube can be cotton, metal lid, plastic lid or aluminum foil. Solid media that is inserted into the test tubes can be arranged into two forms according to its function, namely the media in order to erect (deep tube in order) and to tilt (slants in order). To make the side, keep in mind about the media ie the slope of the surface area in contact with air is not too narrow or too wide a distance and avoid media that is too close to the mouth of the tube because it can increase the risk of contamination. For efficiency reasons, the media were added ranging from 10-12 ml per tube.
• Erlenmeyer flask (Erlenmeyer Flask)
Serves to accommodate a solution, or liquid material. Erlenmeyer flasks can be used to mix and homogenize the material composition of the media, hold distilled water, microbial cultivation in liquid culture, etc.. There are several options based on the volume of fluid that can is sufficient ie 25 ml, 50 ml, 100 ml, 250 ml, 300 ml, 500 ml, 1000 ml, etc.
• Measuring cup (Graduated Cylinder)
Useful for measuring the volume of a liquid, such as Erlenmeyer flask, measuring cups have a few choices based on the volume scale. At the time of measuring the volume of the solution, the volume should be determined based on the solution of the meniscus is concave.
• Durham Tube
Durham tube shaped similar to a test tube, but smaller in size and function to accommodate / gas trap formed by metabolism of the bacteria tested. Placing it upside down in a test tube and must be submerged completely in the media (do not let any remaining air).
• Needles inoculum
Inoculum needle serves to move the culture to be planted / grown into new media. Inoculum needles are usually made of nichrome or platinum wire so it can glow when exposed to heat. Needle tip shape can be circular (loop) and is called loop or inoculating loop / loop transfer, and the form of so-called straight inoculating needle / transfer needle. Inoculating loop fit to carry out the streak on the surface so that, while suitable for inoculating needle in a puncture inoculation in order to erect (stab inoculating).
Petri dish is a round shaped container made of glass or plastic that is used to propagate the cells. Petri dishes are always in pairs, whose size is rather small as the larger container and a lid. Petri dish named after its discoverer in 1877, namely Julius Richard Petri (1852-1921), German experts bacteria.
This tool is used as a container for the investigation of trophies and also for culturing bacteria, spores, yeasts, grains. Plastic Petri dishes can be destroyed after a single use for culturing bacteria. Stir bar, long shape made of heat resistant glass, is used to stir the liquid in the beaker that both ends are blunt.