Water is the source for life. Often we hear referred to as the blue planet Earth, as the waters cover 3 / 4 the earth’s surface. But not infrequently we find it difficult to get clean water, especially during the dry season when water life begins to change color or smell. Ironic indeed, but that’s reality. To be sure we must always be optimistic. Although water wells or other water sources that we have started to become turbid, dirty or smelly, as long as the quantity is still a lot we can still attempt to modify / clarify the murky water / dirty water into a worthy life.
There are various simple ways that we can use to get clean water, and the easiest and most common use is to make a water filter, and for us perhaps the most appropriate is to make a water purifier or water filter is simple. It should be noted, that the clean water produced from water by simple filtration process can not completely eliminate the salt dissolved in water. Use a simple distillation to produce water which does not contain salt. Here are several simple alternative ways to get clean water by filtering the water:
1. Cotton fabric filter.
2. Cotton filter
4. Slow sand filter (SPL)
5. Rapid sand filter (SPC)
6. Gravity-Fed Filtering System
7. Charcoal filter
8. Simple water filter / traditional
9. Ceramic filter
10. Sieve Rock / Jempeng / Lumpang Stone
11. Clay filter.
Fish is a member of the vertebrate poikilotermik (cold blooded) that live in water and breathe with gills. Fish is the most diverse vertebrate species with more than 27,000 worldwide. Taxonomically, fish are a paraphyletic group whose exact relationships are much debated; fish usually divided into the jawless fish (class Agnatha, 75 species including lampreys and hagfish), cartilaginous fishes (class Chondrichthyes, 800 species including sharks and rays), and the remaining classified as hard bony fish (class Osteichthyes).
Gills are owned by the types of fish (pisces). Gill-shaped thin sheets of pink and is always damp. The outer portion dare gills associated with water, while the inside is closely linked to the blood capillaries. Each sheet consists dare pair of gill filaments, and each contains many layers of thin filaments (lamela). In the filaments are blood vessels that have a lot of capillaries that allow O2 and CO2 diffuses into diffuse out. Gills on the true bony fishes are covered by a gill cover called the operculum, whereas the cartilaginous fishes gills are not covered by the operculum.
Gills not only serves as a respirator but can also function as a means of excretion of salts, filter feeders, ion exchange equipment, and osmoregulator. Some types of fish have a labyrinth which is an extension to the top of the gills and form folds that are irregular cavities. The labyrinth is responsible for maintaining the reserve 02 so fish hold on 02-deficient conditions. To save a backup 02, in addition to the labyrinth, the fish have a swim bladder is located near the back.
Stickney (1979) states one of the adjustment of fishing on the environment is the setting of water and salt balance in body tissues, because some contain salt water vertebrate animals with different concentrations of the media environment. Fish should be set osmotic pressure to maintain body fluid balance every time.
The mechanism of breathing in fish through two stages, inspiration and expiration. In the inspiration phase, 02 of water into the gills and 02 tied by blood capillaries to be carried to tissues in need. In contrast to the expiratory phase, C02 is carried by the blood of the network will lead to the gills and excreted from the gills outside body. Overfishing is a term in English to explain overfishing. This phenomenon is a threat to various species of fish.