Cloning in biology is the process of producing an individual – an individual of the same species (populations) are genetically identical. Cloning is an asexual reproductive process that normally occurs in nature and is experienced by many bacteria, insect or plants. In biotechnology, cloning refers to the variety of businesses – the human effort to produce copies of DNA or genes, cells or organisms. Cloning meaning is also used outside the biological sciences
Genes are units of heredity that determines the structure of a peptide sequence that is a series of amino acids that make up the enzyme and protein blocks. Each cell contains the genetic information to produce the entire human body.
Human cloning is a technique to make offspring with the same genetic code as its parent in the form of humans. This can be done by taking the body cells (somatic cells) of the human body, then retrieved his cell nucleus (nucleus), and then implanted in the egg (ovum) female-cell nucleus has been removed by a method similar to the process of fertilization or artificial insemination. With such methods, human cloning carried out by taking the nucleus from a person’s body, then inserted into an egg cell taken from a woman. Then with the help of a special chemical liquid and electric shock, the cell nucleus combined with the egg. After the merger occurs, the egg that has been mixed with the cell nucleus is transferred into the womb of a woman, in order to multiply, grow, differentiate, and turned into a perfect fetus. After that the resulting offspring can be born naturally. Offspring will be genetically coded the same as its parent, the person who is the source of the body cell’s nucleus that has been implanted in the female egg cell.
The inheritance that occurs in the cloning process, the properties are derived only from those who become the source of the cell-making body, either male or female. And the resulting child will have the same properties as the parent in terms of physical appearance, such as height and width of the body and skin color, and also in terms of potentials and psychological sense that is original. In other words, the child will inherit all the characteristics of the original nature of the parent. While the characteristics obtained through the results of its operations, it can not be inherited. If such cells are taken from a scholar who faqih, or the great mujtahid, or a physician who is an expert, it does not mean the child will inherit these traits because these traits are the result of effort, not the original properties.
Achievements of science until the discovery of the cloning process, actually has revealed a set of natural laws of Allah SWT in the cells of humans and animals, because the cloning process has highlighted the fact that the human body and animal cells have the potential to produce offspring, if the cell nucleus body is implanted in female egg cell nucleus that has been eliminated. Thus, the core nature of the body’s cells are like the male sperm cells to fertilize a female egg cell.
Human cloning could take place in the presence of men and women in the process. This process is carried out by taking cells from the male body and cell nucleus is taken and then combined with the female egg cell nucleus had been removed. This egg-cell nucleus after joining the male body and then transferred into the womb of a woman in order to memeperbanyak themselves, grow, turn into a fetus, and eventually be born as a baby. This baby is the offspring with the same genetic code with a man who became the source of the cell-making body. Human cloning may also take place among women only, without requiring the presence of men. This process is carried out by taking cells from the body of a woman, then the cell nucleus was taken and combined with the female egg cell nucleus had been removed. This egg-after joining the female body-cell nucleus and then transferred into the uterus of women to reproduce themselves, evolve, change into a fetus, and eventually be born as a baby. Babies born to an offspring with the same genetic code with a woman who became the source of the cell-making body.
This is similar to what has been successfully carried out on animals sheep (Dolly). At first the nucleus of a cell taken from the sheep, from the breast or ambingnya, then the special properties associated with this function dihilangkan.Kemudian udder cell nucleus is inserted into a sheep egg cell layer, after dibuang.Sel egg cell nucleus is then implanted into the uterus of sheep in order to reproduce themselves, evolve, change into a fetus, and eventually produced a baby sheep. This is the sheep named Dolly, who had the same genetic code with the first sheep to be the source of the udder cell retrieval.